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  1. page Test edited This is just a test to see if this is working
    This is just a test to see if this is working
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Friday, May 11

  1. page Motivation edited ... Lock (1968) identified the goal setting theory as specific and challenging goal affecting the …
    ...
    Lock (1968) identified the goal setting theory as specific and challenging goal affecting the motivation and behaviour of the individual. Specific performance goals are more effective than asking an individual to do “the best they can”. Challenging goals are more motivational than easy or vague goals. The more dedicated an individual is at achieving the goal the more motivated they become. Commitment from an individual is greater when they are involved in the goal setting process.
    Reinforcement Theory
    Skinner (xxxx)(1938) identified that
    ...
    and praise (Skinner,(Skinner,1938 ) and
    Motivation in the 21st century:
    Steers et al (2004) argue that since the 1970's few new ideas and concepts have emerged on employee motivation. Instead the theories founded in the 1960's and 1970's were extended and refined in subsequent works, by new academics. Similarly Holmes (2011), who categorised Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's motivator hygiene frameworks as founding theories, argues that the contemporary theories (including the ERG theory, the Goal setting theory and the cognitive evaluation theory) expand on these existing models. Lawrence and Nohria “bucked” the trend in motivational theory when they applied the four drive model to motivation (Abraham, 2010 and Lawrence, 2010).
    ...
    Lawrence, P.R. (2010) Driven to lead: good, bad and misguided leadership. San Francisco: A Wiley imprint
    Locke, E.A and Latham, G.P (2004) What should we do about motivation theory? Six reccommendations for the twenty first century. Academy Management Review. 29 (3) 388-403
    Locke, E., (1968) ‘Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives’ Organizational behavior and human performance, (3)2: 157-189.
    Mak, B.L and Sockel, H. (2001) A confirmatory factor analysis of IS employee motivation and retention. Information and Management I38 (2001) 265-276
    Maslow, A.H. (1970) Motivation and personality. 3rd ed. Harper and Row publishers inc: New York.
    ...
    Nohria, N, Groysberg, B and Lee, L.E. (2008) Employee motivation: a powerful new model. Harvard Business Review. July-August (2008) 1-9
    Northouse, P.G, 2011 Leadership Theory and Practice Fifth Edition South Asia Edition, Sage Publications, India.
    Porter, L., and Lawler, E., (1968) Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
    Poston, B. (2009) An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow's hierarchy of needs The Surgical Technology. August 2009, 347-353.
    Ramlall, S (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within the organisations. Journal of American Academy of Business. 2004 (5), 52-63.
    ...
    Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self‐determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well‐being. American Psychologist, 55, 68‐78.
    Sadri, G and Clarke, B. (2011). Meeting employee requirements: Maslow's hierarchy of needs is still a reliable guide to motivating staff. Industrial Engineer. 43 (11), 44-48.
    ...
    (1), 166-178.
    Skinner, B.F., (1938) The Behavior of Organisms. An Experimental Analysis, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

    Steel and Konig (2006) Integrating theories of motivation. Academy Management Review. 31 (4) 889-913
    Steers, R.M, Mowday, R.T and Shapiro, D.L. (2004) Introduction to special topic forum: The future of work motivation theory. Academy of Management Review. 29 (3) 379-387
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    12:08 am

Thursday, May 10

  1. page Motivation edited ... 35 (Table 1, Effectiveness of different incentives) Major Process Theories Expectancy Theo…
    ...
    35
    (Table 1, Effectiveness of different incentives)
    Major Process Theories
    Expectancy Theory
    Individuals choose work behaviours that they believe will lead to outcomes they value (Vroom, 1964). The individual will consider the degree of effort required to produce an output. This output should match the management expected output and therefore warrant an expected reward. Porter et al (1968) criticised this theory as too simplistic.
    Equity Theory
    Individuals are motivated to reduce any perceived inequity (Vroom, 1964). An individual may reduce the amount of effort they apply to a task should a peer get the same reward for less effort.
    Goal Setting Theory
    Lock (1968) identified the goal setting theory as specific and challenging goal affecting the motivation and behaviour of the individual. Specific performance goals are more effective than asking an individual to do “the best they can”. Challenging goals are more motivational than easy or vague goals. The more dedicated an individual is at achieving the goal the more motivated they become. Commitment from an individual is greater when they are involved in the goal setting process.
    Reinforcement Theory
    Skinner (xxxx) identified that it was not necessary to study the needs or cognitive processes of an individual but examine the consequences of their behaviour. It is believed that behaviour that is reinforced is likely to continue. The reward for doing something well is an example that is used within business. Behaviour that is not rewarded or punished will not continue. If there is no reward, why is it worth doing it again?
    When motivating a workforce all four of the major process theories are useful. A manager should when possible ensure that the employee believes that an increased effort will improve overall performance and this may lead to valued rewards.(Vroom, 1964). Managers need to be aware of how the employee perceives the reward system. Employees need to see it as being fair. Within any organisation the management should be aware of the motivational benefits of having the involvement of the employee in the setting of goals and understand the level of self efficacy of an employee. Should this level be high the employee is more likely to respond positively to the setting of challenging goals. Good performance should be encouraged with positive feedback and praise (Skinner, ) and that negative performance will not be rewarded and may lead to punishment.

    Motivation in the 21st century:
    Steers et al (2004) argue that since the 1970's few new ideas and concepts have emerged on employee motivation. Instead the theories founded in the 1960's and 1970's were extended and refined in subsequent works, by new academics. Similarly Holmes (2011), who categorised Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's motivator hygiene frameworks as founding theories, argues that the contemporary theories (including the ERG theory, the Goal setting theory and the cognitive evaluation theory) expand on these existing models. Lawrence and Nohria “bucked” the trend in motivational theory when they applied the four drive model to motivation (Abraham, 2010 and Lawrence, 2010).
    (view changes)
    11:51 pm
  2. page Change Management. edited ... Change: A less straightforward journey. “It is a paradox of organisational life that situatio…
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    Change: A less straightforward journey.
    “It is a paradox of organisational life that situations and problems that cry out most strongly for change are often the very ones that resist change most stubbornly” (Pugh, 2009: 1). Organisational change is less of a clear-cut process as often perceived, thus has garnered increasing attention in the realm of management literature. Organisations are regularly undergoing change, whether it is downsizing, right-sizing, reengineering, culture changes, management fads, the list goes on (Reichers, Wanous and Austin, 1997). Take for example the manufacturing industry. According to Lawler (1986) and Walton (1985), workforce reforms in manufacturing plants have seen a significant shift from Talorist work ethics – of control and rigidity - to higher degrees of employee involvement and commitment. This was somewhat mirrored in the east. Technological advances in the Japanese automotive industry sparked ‘lean’ thinking in respect of manufacturing techniques, requiring greater input from the workforce in order to reduce waste (Womack, James and Roos, 1990). Quite often though, organisational change fails, owing to a number of constraining factors in the change management process.
    Culture
    Over thirty years ago, when looking at management culture within organisations Charles Handy (Handy 2007) identified four distinct main cultures. Each of these cultures
    to aid understanding he believed could be addedsymbolised by an image to reinforce the elements within the culture. The individual cultures or philosophy of culture can also be explained using the Ancient Greek Gods. Handy named these ‘The Four Gods of Management’.
    Zeus - The Club Culture {Pic_1_Spiders_web.JPG}
    In Greek mythology Zeus was known as the god of the sky, law and order. He was believed to control lightning and thunder which were used by him as weapons. He was the king of gods and presiding over all other gods on mount Olympus. When analysing a management culture, the role culture is best explained as the owner / manager of a family organisation, who surrounds himself with friends and family to build a business. As the business develops the owner remains the central figure, controlling all aspects of the business from a central point. This could be compared to a spider within the centre of a spider’s web. The power within the culture runs within the structure of the web. The encircling lines of the web are power and influence. As business builds, the web is increased in size. This environment can be a friendly and sociable but ruled with an iron hand. This culture works for the smaller business but as it expands the owner within the middle of the web starts to lose control of the extremities. At this point change management is required.
    Apollo - The Role Culture {Pic_2_Temple.JPG}
    Apollo was the Greek god with many talents. He was perceived to be the god of order and rules. As organisations increase in size a requirement exists to impart explicit knowledge of how to conduct specific tasks in the workplace. This usually takes the form of policies and procedures. The role culture can be simplified by saying that each separate department, individually working on their own task, plays a part in getting the overall job done. This type of culture requires a hierarchical structure producing the policies, procedures and overseeing the operations of the organisation. Example of an organisation with an Apollo culture could be the Ministry of Defence or the National Heath Service. The symbol used by Handy to represent this culture was a Greek temple. The pillars represent the departments and provide the organisation with strength. The departments only meet at the top, where the department heads form the management board, the upper levels of the hierarchical structure.
    Athena - The Task Culture {Pic_3_Net.JPG}
    Athena, in Greek mythology, was the daughter of Zeus, the king of the gods. She was believed by the Greeks to be the goddess of wisdom and arts and crafts. As a war goddess, instead of focusing on bloodshed she would focus on strategy. The task culture management relies on the need to complete a specific process or to solve a particular problem. These results and solutions are achieved by drawing sections of knowledge together from within the organisation. Define the problem and then allocate the appropriate resources. The strength of an Athena type management culture lays within the groups working on specific tasks or problems. This can be symbolised with a net. The power of the organisation is not at the top as in an Apollo culture or within the middle of the web as in a Zeus culture but instead where the lines of the net cross.
    Dionysus - The Existential Culture {Pic_4_stars.JPG}
    The hedonistic half brother of Apollo, Dionysus the Greek god of wine and song, is often used to portray drunken rivalry. He is sometime identified with frenzied madness and represents libido and gratification. . Within the other three cultures mentioned the individual is subordinate to the organisation, their role is to enable the organisation to achieve its purpose. The existential culture the organisations role is to allow the individual to achieve their purpose. An example of this could be Doctors working within a medical practice. All have their own specialities and share the facilities such as phones and rooms. They may be managed but not lead. Handy symbolised the Existential culture using stars grouped together. No star is dependent upon another and it best portrays the individuality of the person.
    To identify, using Handy’s Gods of management theory, the type of culture within an organisation is not always easy. If the organisation is large there can possibly be a combination of cultures within. An example of this is the National Health Service: The culture within a hospital could be viewed as a ‘Role Culture’, structured with policies and procedures, individual departments working towards a common goal. The structure has the hospital management at the top of the organisation, trying to move the hospital forward meeting the requirements of the local community.
    This is a unique period in the NHS and a time of significant change for health and care services in England, with an unprecedented level of responsibility being devolved to frontline staff. Building on our successes as we design the future requires bold and thoughtful leadership, rethinking how we work, challenging current practice and thinking outside of our own organisational and professional interests.
    Sir David Nicholson, NHS Chief Executive (NHS 2010.b)
    Within the organisation however the consultants, doctors and nurses, who could be portrayed as individual stars having to work together, maybe said to have an existential culture making any changes very difficult. It has been said that the public sector providers of heath care want to keep existing working patterns and are reluctant to change (Le Grand, 2001:117).

    Organisational culture has long since been recognised as a factor affecting the change management process (Wilkins, 1983). Peters and Waterman (1981) affirm that a defining factor of a successful organisation is a very strong and well developed culture. The culture sets the norms for the whole organisation and provides underpinning for individual behaviours and actions (Mohanty and Yadav, 1996). Especially for longstanding organisations, the culture becomes the lifeblood of the workforce, transferring from one generation of worker to the next. For organisations brought up on traditional management thinking, and particularly those longstanding, instilling change requires a paradigm shift in the managerial ideologies and thinking employed (Mohanty and Yadav, 1996). This of course is far cry from simplicity, which is evident in the 90 per cent failure rate of culture change initiatives (Rogers, Meehan and Tanner, 2006). Consistent with the views of Thomas and Hardy (2011): “Successful change requires the cooperation of employees.” By reversing this statement, it may be construed that a lack of cooperation hinders the change process. Similar then, Piderit (2000) argues that a mismatch between the organisational culture and change method can encumber the change effort, decreasing cooperation and increasing resistance. The main contention here is that employees become resilient to the change effort, thus preventing a cultural overhaul.
    So culture plays an important role in the change management process, and a lack of accountability can potentially lead to employee resistance. How then might change be managed accordingly? Discussion in Lofquist (2011) emphasises how it is difficult to implement change if those that are most affected are not involved. Thus improving the involvement of employees is likely to improve the chances of successful organisational change. This sustains the views of Lawler (1986) and Walton (1985). Both of whom observed the benefits of greater employee involvement and commitment in work reforms in the manufacturing sector. First and foremost, communication is paramount. Discrepancies often exist in the interpretations of change between employees (Isabella, 1990). It is essential therefore for the rationale of changes to be communicated regularly and tailored specifically for each employee group or level (Meyer and Stensaker, 2005). In terms of involvement, recent approaches to change management celebrate resistance as part of the change process. As an example, Thomas and Hardy (2011) discuss how taking counter-offers made by employees into consideration invokes reciprocity and involvement, leading to a better change process. This may however be peripheral since this interaction is commonplace for organisations with trade union intervention. In terms of commitment, Mohanty and Yadav (1996) consider how the communication of superordinate goals and a sense of belonging of individuals to a larger system are important aspects in the successful change of culture.
    ...
    Wilkins, A. (1983). Organizational stories as symbols which control the organization. In: Pondy, L., Frost, P., Morgan, G. and Dandridge, T. (eds). Organizational Symbolism. Greenwich: JAI Press
    Womack, J., Jones, D. and Roos, D. (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Kerenyi, C., (1951) The Gods of the Greeks. London: Penguin
    Handy, C., (1978) Gods of Management. London: Souvenir Press

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